金沙| 百色| 三亚| 安达| 安塞| 青川| 潜江| 南芬| 宝兴| 浪卡子| 宁乡| 东海| 陈巴尔虎旗| 耿马| 防城港| 昔阳| 榆树| 景德镇| 和龙| 陇县| 江达| 开原| 合浦| 达日| 泸溪| 泸定| 洪江| 无棣| 新丰| 衡水| 汶上| 乐业| 庆阳| 新城子| 芦山| 猇亭| 舞阳| 勐海| 梅县| 德惠| 南康| 双城| 山东| 汝城| 土默特右旗| 武平| 于田| 竹山| 永登| 缙云| 淄博| 晋城| 阿荣旗| 高雄市| 新河| 土默特左旗| 鹿寨| 科尔沁右翼前旗| 洛浦| 张家口| 浦东新区| 扎赉特旗| 和政| 五指山| 德钦| 定兴| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 普兰店| 平坝| 桦南| 霍山| 建阳| 云梦| 太仓| 衡东| 克拉玛依| 汝阳| 安仁| 宿松| 佛坪| 乡城| 新城子| 南安| 福贡| 罗甸| 乌拉特前旗| 和县| 大足| 阿克陶| 浦口| 温泉| 磐石| 庆安| 芜湖县| 安福| 沿河| 南靖| 封开| 扬中| 固原| 二连浩特| 青铜峡| 代县| 名山| 巴林左旗| 浪卡子| 印台| 邵阳县| 宁化| 吴堡| 榆树| 信宜| 青田| 固原| 本溪市| 东营| 芜湖市| 西乌珠穆沁旗| 宕昌| 靖边| 内丘| 安新| 鄂州| 揭西| 和政| 科尔沁左翼后旗| 夏津| 刚察| 綦江| 洛宁| 行唐| 嘉鱼| 米林| 汤旺河| 伊通| 屯昌| 宜兰| 宽城| 建阳| 昌平| 岷县| 鄂州| 巴南| 滁州| 梅州| 夷陵| 高州| 四方台| 绥棱| 温宿| 金华| 错那| 德阳| 廉江| 环县| 白云| 巴林左旗| 新县| 宜昌| 大名| 东乌珠穆沁旗| 井研| 南阳| 白碱滩| 巴中| 红古| 承德市| 古冶| 宿松| 团风| 镇巴| 明溪| 芜湖县| 北流| 宁都| 靖宇| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 泌阳| 当阳| 合山| 惠农| 大埔| 镇康| 胶州| 吉首| 王益| 平远| 红星| 桦南| 巴林左旗| 华坪| 乌拉特中旗| 张家口| 新源| 新兴| 泗阳| 新宁| 云浮| 合山| 额尔古纳| 高邮| 囊谦| 土默特右旗| 东山| 天镇| 庐山| 绥宁| 大关| 漳县| 前郭尔罗斯| 临夏市| 波密| 长丰| 仙桃| 美溪| 大方| 南昌市| 肥东| 金州| 商都| 麻城| 惠阳| 深泽| 西宁| 尉犁| 合川| 阜新市| 滨州| 英吉沙| 安福| 安龙| 合江| 彬县| 肇东| 磐石| 兴县| 南投| 九江县| 浙江| 舒城| 汉源| 鹰潭| 谢家集| 重庆| 峡江| 衡阳市| 团风| 石河子| 林甸| 天津| 梅州| 岳阳市| 阜平| 隆回| 无为| 武都| 防城区| 毕节| 万源| 道真| 江门| 华县| 会昌|

习近平接见新调整组建军级单位主官 对各单位发布训令

2019-09-16 21:15 来源:新疆日报

  习近平接见新调整组建军级单位主官 对各单位发布训令

  下方则有网友所拼刀具和拼团剩余时间。“在军事上,解放军可以进行警告、伴随、抵近侦察和监视等,必要时可以采取驱离等方式,此外还可以采取一些预防性干扰措施。

2017年,美欧贸易逆差高达1510亿美元,这令特朗普十分“不满”。第二,停止在南海地区寻衅滋事,因为横行是有风险的,碰瓷也是需要付出代价的。

  在这之前,无论是欧盟长达8页的反制清单还是加拿大128亿美元的报复性关税,都成为特朗普惹了众怒的最佳证据。……

  毕竟特朗普做总统只有一年,但他却在商战里浮沉了几十年。一直住在酒店,据交代,当天从酒店出来后,临时起意,一路跟随这两女孩进了小区电梯。

▲图片来源:澎湃视频截图▲图片来源:BBC截图消息流出后,KateSpade母公司Tapestry股价一度下跌超过2%,收盘价收窄为下跌%。

  尽管路透社5日援引美国官员的话已称,届时新馆落成典礼之际,“美国不太可能派高官出席”。

  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  孟加拉国工人在达卡郊区的一家服装厂工作《卫报》图“全球劳工正义”组织上周发布了两份有关Gap和HM服装供应链中性别暴力的报告,在这两家零售商工厂工作的540多名工人讲述了她们所遇到的威胁和虐待事件。

  日本海外妓女的大量存在,一方面虽然解决日本国内的社会贫困问题,另一方面可以为日本政府赚取大量外汇,同时通过日本妓女在海外形成新的日式妓女市场消费方式,又极大地刺激和促进日本经济的顺利输出。记者通过电话向拼多多客服反映问题,客服人员则让记者直接向APP的客服机器人反映,但机器人客服至今没有给出反馈。

  此外,美国还派出副助理国务卿访台,表示愿意帮台造潜艇,这反映出“美国对台湾在太平洋地区的重视”。

  但记者试图发起拼单,则跳出付款页面,仍可交易。

  看过日本电影《望乡》的人们,还会记得由日本著名电影演员田中绢代扮演的老年阿岐婆的银幕形象,以及老年阿岐婆所控诉的日本妓女漂泊海外的悲惨历史。目前拥有数以千万计的忠实用户,核心用户以高学历、高收入、高职位、成熟的男士为主,占中华网总用户的82%。

  

  习近平接见新调整组建军级单位主官 对各单位发布训令

 
责编:
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《河姆渡文化》创作谈:倾心经营千古史 瑰丽思逸情采出

2019-09-16 10:34 来源: 人民网-人民日报
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  河姆渡文化(中国画)

  王 赞 王雄飞 卞文学 王 昶 王丽旻

  独特而复杂多样的传统文化,是每一个民族繁衍生息的根基和血脉。中国传统文化作为中华民族文化精神的根源,历史源远流长、内容博大精深,是中国文化自信的重要源泉。2011年,我和我的创作团队接受了“中华文明历史题材美术创作工程”之《河姆渡文化》的创作任务。河姆渡文化是此次创作工程时间排序上的开篇之作,作为中华文明最悠久的一段历史篇章,在自身发展过程中打下了深厚的积淀。如何结合新的时代条件传承和弘扬河姆渡文化及中华美学精神,创作出鲜明、独特且有崇高之美的艺术作品?有关河姆渡文化的真实与幻想交替浮现在我们的构思过程之中,历史的现实和现实的历史成为我们面对创作从中获得真正解释的课题。

  历史与艺术的表达

  五年间,我和团队成员以创作思想性、艺术性和社会影响力俱佳的大型美术作品为目标,在创作过程中对绘画内容、主题思想和艺术表现形式不断进行论证和探讨。我们以对河姆渡遗址的多次考察和大量出土文物的研究为基础,借鉴古代壁画元素,运用中国画和传统岩彩的表现技法,通过想象和逻辑推衍,以完整的构图、丰富的情节、热烈的色彩再现河姆渡古人类的生产、生活以及生存环境,体现先民的智慧、勤劳以及河姆渡文化的光辉灿烂,歌颂中华文明的悠久与辉煌。

  河姆渡遗址位于杭州湾南岸、余姚河姆渡村东北,发掘于1973年,是新石器时代母系氏族公社时期的氏族村落遗址,也是中国新石器晚期最具代表性的文化之一,具有丰富的文化物质遗存。因为处于潮湿的沼泽边缘,河姆渡古人类以农业生产为主。在遗址中,发现有距今七千多年的稻米种植和运用高超榫卯结构工艺建造的干栏式建筑。为了强调河姆渡文化的独立性与成熟性,我们在《河姆渡文化》的创作中以多生活内容组合、多层次技法表现、多重空间维度场景叠映和转换的手法,选取最具代表的形象与符号,对远古人类舞蹈、狩猎、捕鱼、种植、编织、制陶等勤劳而和谐的场面进行了定格,力求使每个形象个体都闪现出河姆渡文化几千年前的风采与光芒。

  作为历史题材美术创作,《河姆渡文化》不仅要反映几千年长江中下游流域氏族的情况,还要突破固有思维对“真实历史”的认知局限,以非还原的手法使构思的真实性与内容的浪漫性在现代与古代信息点上穿梭往返,使想象与现实、历史与考古有机结合,变成艺术家创造性想象的新历史绘画。因此,《河姆渡文化》在尊重历史的基础上以纵向和横向两条考察线索进入——纵向上透过河姆渡文化遗址的历史叠压层的文化印记看历史,横向上感受考古清理出的各类生活用品看现象,在那里,人类文明的技艺与生活经验不断传递,烙下中华民族心理的印痕。《河姆渡文化》这种还原历史的方式,不是历史的再现,更不是图解,而是现代人对于历史的重新演绎和创造,是艺术的历史现实。

  有限与无限的创造

  历史题材的创作如果没有人物画形式的参与将缺少绘画主体精神的表达。《河姆渡文化》以中国画人物造型为主体,通过构图、线条、色彩的结合,使画面内容满足历史题材绘画预设性的要求,又体现绘画对无限可能的表达。这种有限与无限的冲突是绘画技术与艺术不断创新发展的动力,更体现为创作者在协调矛盾时的艰辛付出。

  河姆渡遗址出土的陶器与我国新石器时代遗址考古中关于火的创造、火的利用与人类文明的进步息息相关。火是人类逐渐步入文明的象征。因此,作品《河姆渡文化》的中心部分描绘了一群人物围绕着篝火舞蹈,火也成为整幅画面的中心。根据对河姆渡遗址出土陶器的取样,我们运用岩彩的技法和天然矿物色的塑造优势,在画面中对陶器的质感进行了再现。制陶难在对泥土材料与火烧温度的控制,制陶的真正美感与意味来源于“天人合一”的自然创造,可以说,制陶完成了物与造物者由平凡向文化与智慧的转身,完成了心与手的品质提升。这也是作品中表现制陶的深意。

  河姆渡遗址中出土的舟楫也是河姆渡先进文化的重要体现之一。有学者认为,河姆渡人“是舟楫发明和征服海洋的先导”“他们带着水稻向东海和东南亚发展”。这不仅揭示了河姆渡人创造文明、征服自然的能力,也显示了河姆渡文化对人类文明具有的广泛影响力。在《河姆渡文化》创作中,舟楫的表现与当时湿地的生态相结合,隐匿在芦草之中,在丰富画面层次和空间的同时,体现一种诗意的浪漫之情,如《诗经》中“蒹葭苍苍”的意境,与画面视觉中心激烈昂扬的舞蹈场面形成动静对比,并流畅自然地完成了绘画中关于时空的转换。

  《河姆渡文化》创作的过程不仅是艺术与技术的较量,也是学识、表达能力和想象力的极致融合。如何在画面有限的空间里最好地表达主题、传递情感是《河姆渡文化》创作不断求索的动力。河姆渡文化作为中华文化勤劳、智慧、和谐等精神的体现,是中华文明的重要组成部分。当今所倡导的文化自信,离不开对民族历史的认知与运用。源远流长的中华文明形成了中华民族独特而悠久的精神世界,历史感所带来的丰富灵感以及深刻的思想感受,是民族自信的根源。《河姆渡文化》通过艺术造型涂写对河姆渡几千年历史的横向与纵向梳理,并运用四季时空转换对具象形象进行诗意表现,再现了河姆渡古人类的生产、生活及精神文明,生动地展现了河姆渡文化厚重、艰辛而辉煌的发展过程,也揭示了中国精神的历史文脉、中华文明的历史演进和中华民族波澜壮阔的奋斗史诗,对帮助人们认识并弘扬中华文明、提升文化自信和引导人们共建繁荣和谐的社会具有重要的意义。

  《河姆渡文化》的绘画手法还采用了中国古老的壁画岩彩的表现技法。壁画岩彩既是中国绘画传统的根脉,又是世界绘画通用的语言。几千年来,岩彩这种以矿物石色为艺术材料的绘画语言在世界范围内演绎了众多经典佳作,不仅包括世界各地的壁画、原始彩绘等遗迹,还参与了绘画及绘画材料的发展。中国以新疆克孜尔、甘肃敦煌莫高窟、山西永乐宫、北京法海寺为代表的经典壁画都是运用岩彩绘制的经久不变的经典绘画遗迹,在中国美术史上具有重要的地位和价值。在创作中,我们运用传统岩彩材料多层叠加的色彩处理方法,使《河姆渡文化》画面层次丰富、色彩斑驳厚重、人物造型纯朴活泼。

  绘画很重要的一个功能是传递精神力量。在塑造河姆渡文化辉煌灿烂的主体意识中,作品《河姆渡文化》的艺术手法从装饰性表现转为诗意表现,以金、银箔满铺作底,通过生动的人物造型和氛围的渲染,使场景定格在黎明时分,通过层层矿物色的遮盖罩染,形成了画面中间亮、四周暗的盈盈光晕效果,不但与主题篝火意象相协调,也使画面浑厚而又具空气感。

  绘画艺术不仅是文化交流的方式,也是展现中华文明精神的途径。《河姆渡文化》以生动的笔触和充实的内容,所营造的“天人合一”“人与自然和谐相处”的原始社会形态,不仅体现了当代创作对心灵的感召,也是在倡导尊重自然、保护自然,维护和涵养生态文化,传递中华文明的历史清音。

  《 人民日报 》( 2019-09-16 08 版)

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